Interview used with permission from – an amazing organisation that helps develop skilled healthcare workers in resource limited countries.

Here is the transcript – and the mistakes…

>>Interviewer: Hi, my name in Alison Jones. I understand that you have been to several Chart trainings, and I am the qualitative interviewer, and so I am interviewing people and asking them for feedback about the training and how it went for them, and all of that. So, um, is it OK if I talk with you about that?
>>Respondent: Yes, of course
>>Interviewer: Great. So, um, what is your name?
>>Respondent: Shay Bloomer
>>Interviewer: Profession? [looking down and writing] >>Respondent: I’m a nurse
>>Interviewer: Great. And how long have you been a nurse?
>>Respondent: I have been a nurse for 12 years.

[Mistake 1. Efficient but brusque introduction – does not start to build trust or empathy}
>>Interviewer: OK. Um, did you enjoy the training? [Still looking down]

[Mistake 2 a. Closed question gets a short answer, leading, does not consider the possibility the training may not have been enjoyed]
>>Respondent: Yes I did.
>>Interviewer: Would you say you enjoyed it a little bit, a medium amount, or a lot?
[Mistake 3. Interviewer puts emphasis on ‘a lot’. ‘Would you say’ as a question is literally putting words in the respondent’s mouth. Respondent will have got the message she is supposed to have enjoyed it and not criticise.]
>>Respondent: I enjoyed it a lot.
>>Interviewer: Great. OK. And did you learn something by the training?
>>Respondent: Yes, I did.
>>Interviewer: excellent. OK. Would you recommend it to a friend?
>>Respondent: Yes I would.
[Mistake 2 b. Two more closed/leading questions just created short and uninformative answers]
>>Interviewer: Great. OK. So, can you give me an example of something you learned?
>>Respondent: errr,
>>Interviewer: [interrupting] for example, um, some people have learned that they may think that they are not discriminating, and that they are very open and respectful of everybody, but then, when they actually get down to it and go through the training they understand there are things they actually do have some sort of biases in them, and they may not have known it but then the training helps them discover it. And then helps them be very self-reflective, and that sort of thing. Do you think that maybe that’s something you learned in the training?
[Mistake 4 Not giving respondent time to think, interrupting and suggesting candidate answers]
>>Respondent: Um, certainly I think some of that was covered in the training; we also learned about taking sexual history, [Interviewer taking notes] effectively taking a sexual history which is a sensitive topic and it’s not something that I was trained in, in my professional education, um, we also learned about patient confidentiality and the importance of maintaining patient confidentiality to protect our patients and both of those I think were very relevant for me.
[Mistake 5a Not listening because she is writing too many notes]
>>Interviewer: I’m sorry, can you say that last part again, I got distracted, I am so sorry.
>>Respondent: It’s OK. I believe I was talking about how we talked about the importance of patient confidentiality and maintaining confidentiality of patient records to protect our patients.
[Mistake 6 Failing to follow up on WHY that was important and get more information about what had been learned]
>>Interviewer: You have been talking a lot about what you learned, and now I would like to ask you a bit about what you have done differently. It’s one thing to say we learned something; then it can be quite another thing to try to do something differently. So can you tell me anything that you have done differently because of the training?
[Mistake 7 Offering own opinion that is harder to do something differently than to just learn something]
>>Respondent: Urrh, so what I’m doing differently since the training?
>>Interviewer: There must be something you did differently. [Much rapid hand waving] I mean, think about it, you know, anything, because you mentioned all these different things you learned about, so can you think about, you know, maybe keeping your voice softer, or spending a longer time with patients…or being more empathetic than you were before, anything like that, do you think any of those may be things that you did differently?
[Mistake 8 Distracting body language (handwaving), AND suggesting answers again]
>>Respondent: Yes, I am sure they must think I am more empathetic than I was before.
>>Interviewer: Great!! So now, let’s talk about the training methodology. Do you think it was effective?
[Mistake 9a. ‘Great’ is being used as more than an acknowledgment that the interviewer heard; it is being used as a reward for the respndent giving the desired answer.Another closed question]
>>Respondent: Yes, it was.
>>Interviewer: Great!! And, um, how was it effective?
>>Respondent: It was very interesting training, I was happy to be there.
:>>Interviewer Great. But it helped you learn and do your work differently?
[Mistake 2 c Another Leading question]
>>Respondent: Well, um, perhaps.
>>Interviewer: Now I’m a little bit confused because it seems that you are contradicting yourself (looking back over notes). I think that earlier you said it helped you learn and you were doing something differently, but…now you seem to be changing your mind. Now I’m just very confused. Can you clarify for me whether you did something differently because you learnt from the training or you didn’t?
[Mistake 10. Blaming the respondent for confusing the interviewer; respondent becomes defensive rather than open]
>>Respondent: Well what I mean to say is that I think I have always done my job well and I like my job and I think I have always been respectful of my patients. But I think there are certainly some things that I am doing a bit better than I did before the training.
>>Interviewer: Great. OK. Great. Thank you. So that’s all really good, thanks, so would you like us to provide you with more training on this or any other topic?
[Mistake 9 b Again letting the respondent know she has provided the desired answers]
>>Respondent: Well yes, actually there are a number of different trainings that we could profit from in my facility and that I personally would like to attend. I am very interested in a Health Administration course that is offered in Washington DC, at Howard University….
>>Interviewer: Uhm [checks phone] >>Respondent: I am also very interested in having some more training on diabetes which of course is a large concern for us…
>>Interviewer: Uhm [checks watch] >>Respondent: I am also interested in taking some further training in care of pregnant women who are HIV positive, um, so I think there are a number of trainings that would be of interest.
>>Interviewer: [looking at phone] Can you just say that again, I didn’t get that last part?
>>Respondent: Pregnant women, that are HIV positive?
[Mistake 5 b Interviewer not listening, distracted by phone, respondent does not feel valued]
>>Interviewer:Oh, OK. Um, OK, Um so what are some of the other problems at your facilities?
[Mistake 2 d Leading question – assumes there are problems. ]

[11. Does not specify that the problems she is looking for are the type that could be resolved by training so gets irrelevant information.]
>>Respondent: One of the concerns that we have been going round and round with the administration about, is the water issues in the examination rooms – the running water isn’t working in some exam rooms, which limits the number of rooms in which we can do certain procedures, because the waters not running, or there’s not err, err. . So that’s one issue, the water is not working in some of the exam rooms. I think that there is also some communication issues, some systems issues between the pharmacy folks and the people who are on the wards, and I think that it would be useful for the hospital if we were able to have some communication issues resolved between the pharmacy and the ward.
>>Interviewer: Hmm. OK. Great, Um I think it’s about time for us to wrap up – is there anything else you would like to say?
>>Respondent: Er, no, I don’t think so; did I answer all your questions sufficiently?
>>Interviewer: Yes, just great, thank you so much, Bye bye.

And here is the interview done well – its longer, more probing, more emergent – and much more useful.